The overall plan for improving the employment security system for the disabled to better promote the employment of the disabled
With the consent of the State Council, recently, six departments including the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Civil Affairs, the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, the State Administration of Taxation, and the China Disabled Persons' Federation jointly issued and issued the "Overall Plan" (hereinafter referred to as the "Overall Plan"). The reporter interviewed relevant persons in charge of the National Development and Reform Commission and other departments.
I. What is the background for the introduction of the Overall Plan?
Answer: The Party Central Committee and the State Council attach great importance to the cause of the disabled. General Secretary Xi Jinping explicitly requested that "a well-off society be built in an all-round way, and there must be no disabled person." Premier Li Keqiang proposed "to make the lives of disabled people more solid and more dignified." The employment of the disabled is related to the right to survival and development of the disabled. As an important policy measure to promote the employment of the disabled, the employment security system for the disabled has been fully implemented since 1995. It has played an important role in promoting the proportional employment of the disabled and raising funds to improve the living and development conditions of the disabled.
In recent years, the employment situation of disabled persons (hereinafter referred to as disability insurance benefits) and related employment policies of disabled persons have made the employment situation of disabled persons stable and better. From 2016 to 2018, China has increased the employment of disabled persons in urban and rural areas by more than 300,000 for three consecutive years, and the cumulative increase in the number of disabled persons who have been employed in proportion has exceeded 20%. However, with the development and change of the situation, in recent years, employers in the disability insurance system and the employment of disabled persons have reported a heavy burden on the one hand, and they would rather pay money rather than recruit workers; On the one hand, employers reflect the difficulty of recruiting disabled persons and other issues, and they need to play a variety of policies, including disability insurance benefits, to better promote the employment of disabled persons.
According to the deployment of the 43rd executive meeting of the State Council, the National Development and Reform Commission and the relevant departments formed special working classes, conducted in-depth investigations in multiple provinces, held special meetings many times, and repeatedly listened to opinions from various quarters to demonstrate the effects and impact of policies. On the basis of fully absorbing and adopting the opinions of persons with disabilities, experts, enterprises, relevant local departments, and disabled persons' federations (hereinafter referred to as the Disabled Persons Federation), the "General Plan" was studied and formulated.
What are the general ideas and principles for formulating the Overall Plan?
A: The "Overall Plan" follows the ideas of stabilizing the institutional framework, optimizing the collection structure, standardizing the use of funds, and improving incentives and constraints. The starting point is to improve the collection, use, and management system of disability insurance benefits to further improve the employability of disabled people and employment of disabled people. Service capabilities, actively expand the multiple employment channels for the disabled, do everything possible to promote the employment of disabled people, promote better integration of the disabled into society, and jointly build and share the fruits of economic and social development.
In the formulation of the "Overall Plan", the following basic principles were followed: First, we must take overall planning into consideration. The system optimizes the structure of the collection of disability benefits, not only stabilizes the institutional framework, but also actively responds to employers and other employers' demands. Through "effective collection", it promotes employers to increase the number of disabled people's jobs, and gradually forms a virtuous cycle of strictly implementing the system and vigorously promoting employment. The second is to stick to people. Discrimination against persons with disabilities in employment is prohibited. We will make better use of the disability insurance funds, improve the policy of accurate rewards and subsidies, and improve the employability of disabled people through "effective use", and promote more stable and quality employment for disabled people. The third is to adhere to multiple measures. Taking the improvement of the disability insurance system as a starting point, the employment protection, employment support, and employment services for the disabled will be simultaneously improved, and the enthusiasm of the disabled for employment and entrepreneurship will be fully mobilized, and the multidisciplinary force will be used to better protect the employment of the disabled.
3. What improvements does the General Plan make to the policy on the collection of disability benefits?
Answer: The "Overall Plan" grasps the "bull nose" of the policy on the collection of disability benefits. It no longer focuses solely on the level of collection. Instead, it focuses on stimulating the enthusiasm of enterprises to recruit disabled people from the institutional level, and encourages enterprises to recruit more workers and pay less. . It mainly improves four aspects:
The first is to implement stepwise collection. If the disability insurance premium is adjusted from a single standard to a gradual collection, if the employer arranges the employment rate of disabled persons above 1% (inclusive) but lower than the percentage stipulated by the province (region, city), it will be collected at 50% of the payable amount within three years; If it is less than 1%, it will be levied at 90% of the payable amount within three years.
The second is to temporarily waive the collection of residual insurance for small and micro enterprises. For enterprises with a total of 30 employees (inclusive) or less, residual insurance benefits are temporarily exempted.
The third is to define the caliber of the average social wage. The upper limit of the standard for the collection of disability benefits is still implemented at twice the average local social wage. The caliber of the average social wage is the weighted average wage of employed persons in urban private and non-private units.
The fourth is to reasonably determine the employment arrangements in proportion. If the employing unit accepts the employment of the disabled in the unit through labor dispatch in accordance with the law, the Disabled Persons 'Federation shall, when reviewing the number of disabled persons' employment, correspondingly include and strengthen dynamic monitoring.
It should be noted that the implementation of step-by-step collection embodies the principle of equal emphasis on incentives and constraints, which is conducive to stimulating the enthusiasm of employers and guides them to increase the proportion of employment of disabled persons to more than 1%; allowing employers to perform proportional arrangements in a more flexible manner The employment obligations of persons with disabilities are more in line with the actual employment needs of employers, and are also conducive to further promoting the employment of persons with disabilities.
How does the improvement of the disability insurance system affect the employment of disabled people?
Answer: In order to better protect the employment of the disabled, the "Overall Plan", while improving the policy on the collection of disability benefits, focuses on optimizing the use and supervision of disability benefits.
In terms of supervision, the relevant provincial, municipal, and county departments are required to disclose to the society the income of disability benefits and the expenditures of the disabled, to support the employment of disabled persons and the employers to arrange the employment of disabled persons on a pro-rata basis; Employers that refuse to pay or underpaid residual insurance benefits will record their dishonesty on the national credit information sharing platform. Through the above measures, the collection and use of disability insurance benefits will be enhanced, the employers will be restricted from fulfilling their employment obligations for disabled persons on a pro-rata basis, and all parties in the society will understand and support the employment of disabled persons.
V. What are the highlights of the Master Plan in promoting employment of persons with disabilities?
Answer: The "Overall Plan" proposes seven specific measures to address the difficulties and blockages of the employment of the disabled, and promotes the establishment of a disabled employment service system covering the entire chain of "human development-employment guidance-supply and demand docking-employment maintenance".
The first is to comprehensively identify the employment needs information of the disabled, guide urban and rural community service agencies to track the information of the disabled in real time, accurately grasp the employment needs of the disabled in their jurisdictions, and cooperate with the employment. This will lay the foundation for promoting employment of persons with disabilities.
The second is to do a good job in the development of human resources for the disabled, introduce professional organizations and market institutions, and provide full-chain, personalized services such as vocational rehabilitation training, vocational adaptation assessment, vocational psychological assessment, job orientation guidance, job introduction, and post support for the disabled. . This will better meet the actual needs of disabled people's employment and further improve their employability.
The third is to promote employers to set up employment opportunities for the disabled. Party and government agencies, institutions, and state-owned enterprises at all levels should take the lead in recruiting (hiring) and placing disabled persons in employment. Employment service agencies for persons with disabilities at all levels shall take the initiative to introduce to employers the arrangement of preferential employment policies for persons with disabilities, provide job transformation consultations, and support employers in conducting job transformation. This will give full play to the leading role of party and government agencies, institutions, and state-owned enterprises, and at the same time fully mobilize the enthusiasm of employers to arrange employment for the disabled.
The fourth is to support the development of employment service platforms, give full play to the role of employment service centers for disabled persons, public employment service agencies, labor dispatch companies, and operating human resource service agencies in matching the supply and demand of disabled persons' employment, and recommend stable employment for disabled persons for more than one year. , Rewards are given according to the number of people. This will help solve the problem of matching the supply and demand of the disabled with employment, fully mobilize the enthusiasm of various employment service platforms, and use the strength of intermediary agencies to promote the employment of the disabled.
Fifth, promote the sharing of information exchange resources, relevant provincial departments and units establish information sharing mechanisms for the employment and disability benefits of disabled persons; and on the premise of protecting the privacy of disabled persons, open employment-related disability information data to relevant agencies; promote disability Information on job hunting is interconnected across the province, and national information sharing is gradually being realized. This will help solve the problem of data exchange and provide more comprehensive and powerful data support for relevant departments and institutions to promote the employment of disabled people.
Sixth, improve the employment service guarantee mechanism for the disabled, encourage employers, disabled workers, and employment service agencies to sign tripartite agreements, and vigorously promote employer liability insurance and accidental injury insurance for the disabled. This will provide better guarantees for the employment of persons with disabilities, and will help eliminate the safety concerns of persons with disabilities and employers.
The seventh is to establish a tracking and feedback mechanism for the employment information of the disabled, continuously follow up and understand the employment situation of the disabled, and coordinate and solve problems in the employment process of the disabled and employers in a timely manner. Establish an employment counselor system to provide employment services for the disabled. This will help improve the stability and quality of employment of persons with disabilities.
How to do a good job in implementing the "Overall Plan"?
A: The "Overall Plan" clearly requires that all regions and relevant departments attach great importance to the employment of disabled persons, create conditions to help employers increase employment of disabled persons, play the role of the disability insurance system more effectively, and provide employers with better arrangements for the employment of disabled persons. Environment and more support; timely coordination and resolution of difficulties and problems encountered during the employment of disabled persons, regular summing up of good experiences and good practices to promote employment of disabled persons, and those with the necessary conditions shall be promoted in a timely manner; policy interpretation shall be carried out and public opinion shall be strengthened Publicity and typical demonstrations guide all sectors of society to correctly understand the positive role of disability benefits, and call on the whole society to care about and support the employment of disabled people and jointly create a good environment for disabled people's employment.